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Paving slab



Building block 45
серый

130,00;140,00;140,00;177,00;140,00;140,00;177,00;нет;177,00;нет;
Цена:

   
Proportions, мм
213х105 or 198х98
Height, мм
45
Weight, kg/m2
105
Material riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors
 

Building block 60
серый

150,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;нет;192,00;нет;
Цена:

   
Proportions, мм
213х105 or 198х98
Height, мм
60
Weight, kg/m2
135
Material riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors
 

Building block 80
серый

170,00;190,00;190,00;225,00;190,00;190,00;225,00;нет;225,00;нет;
Цена:

   
Proportions, мм
213х105 or 198х98
Height, мм
80
Weight, kg/m2
135
Material riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors
 

Old Town
серый

130,00;140,00;140,00;177,00;140,00;140,00;177,00;нет;177,00;нет;
Цена:

 
Proportions, мм
118х118
118х88
118х58
118х178
Height, мм
45
Weight, kg/м2
105
Materials riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors

Old Town
серый

150,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;нет;192,00;нет;
Цена:

 
Proportions, мм
118х118
118х88
118х58
118х178
Height, мм
60
Weight, kg/м2
140
Materials riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors

Alpine pavestone
серый

150,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;нет;192,00;нет;
Цена:

 
proportions, мм
73х116х91
95х116х105
101х116х115
120х116х135
130х116х145
Height, мм
60
Weight, kg/м2
140
Material riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors

Roman stone 60
серый

150,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;160,00;160,00;192,00;нет;192,00;нет;
Цена:

 
proportions, мм
118х88х60
118х100х88х60
118х100х88х60
118х118х100х60
Height, мм
60
Weight, kg/м2
140
Material riddlings, sand, cement
Choice of colors

Curb
серый

38,00;65,00;65,00;нет;65,00;65,00;нет;нет;нет;нет;
Цена:

 
Proportions, мм
700х200
Height, мм
80
Weight, pcs/kg
24
Material riddlings, cement
Choice of colors

Concrete capping
серый

26,00;35,00;35,00;50,00;35,00;35,00;50,00;нет;50,00;нет;
Цена:

 
Proportions, мм
350х250
Height, мм
80
Weight, pcs/kg
16
Meterials gravel, cement
Choice of colors


PAVING SLAB

VUD OOO offers a paving slab at the very attractive prices. You can calculate a cost on this page

Paving slab: history, advantages, application

 

Greeks and Romans first began to stone the roads.

 

The paving slab production has been invented in Holland in the XIX century. It was used for road construction because of lack of stone materials in the country. Since the application of such material hailed a reasonable success, the paving slab production has started in other countries.

The artificial material pavestone has been introduced in USSR in 70 – 80s. Initially solid square and rectangular reinforced concrete slabs were used. The figured paving slab production started in the middle 90s of XX century, initially by vibratory casting method only. Now paving slab is rather popular construction material.

Paving slab is used for the improvement and decoration of foot-path, square, platform, curtilage, office and bank surrounding ground pavement. Such paving gets the town or suburban area into civilized and well-groomed shape. The substitution of paving slab for asphalt has a numerous benefits. These include simplicity of laying, attractive appearance of paving slab, paving slab durability as compared to other pavements and prevention of possible wet surface. Presently paving slab is manufactured in wide range of colors by addition of various coloring compounds (pigments) to the concrete mixture. Ordinary cement is used for paving slab of quiet colors typical for the natural stone, and the use of white cement allows bright intense colors.

 

Paving slab advantages

Ecological properties are uppermost benefit. Paving slab is made of natural environmentally-friendly material containing no any detrimental impurities or artificial coloring agents and releasing no any carcinogens.

Durability should be considered the second primary virtue. Sufficiently high paving slab strength, high load bearing characteristic and high resistance to wear considerably extend its service life and allow prolonged attractive appearance.

Next advantage is freeze-thaw resistance. Paving slab capability to withstand very cold ambient conditions makes it virtually irreplaceable under the Ukrainian climatic conditions.

Weather resistance. Paving slab is virtually immune to the devastating impact of rain, wind and direct sun light.

Ease of maintenance should also be considered one of important benefits. Paving slab is easily cleanable of any types of contaminations and requires minimum maintenance.

Next advantage is repairability. This feature allows repeated use of paving slab at the relaying of service lines or other repair works.

Moreover, its aesthetic qualities should be noted. Paving slab is ideal choice for paving of footpaths, walkways and residential yards. Combination of paving slabs of a different size, color and texture allows creation of innumerable quantity of laying patterns. All this allows balanced association of paving slab with any landscape, whether that is square, suburban park or small holding.

 

However, cost effectiveness should be probably considered primary advantage. Paving slab requires much lower laying, maintenance and care costs at the insignificant difference in price as compared to at least asphalt.

Technology of paving slab production by concrete mixture casting into plastic molds introduced in Ukraine from middle 90s of the last century became the real revelation both for the private individuals and for the major building contractors. The Ukrainian building contractor unspoiled with the architectural variety took the opportunity of having affordable material for paving and territory improvement as deliverance from the permanent dependence on asphalt and concrete being quite expensive and then critical materials.

In order to purchase paving slab at favorable price in Dnepropetrovsk, please feel free to contact us via the contact methods specified on website. Manufacturer guarantees high quality of products.

 

Spreading out of the cast paving slab technology eliminated problem of material choice for the pedestrian footpaths and grounds construction. Access ways to houses, city footpaths and whole squares began to gain civilized “European” appearance. Buoyant demand on material not surprisingly caused the rapid growth of private enterprises producing paving slab, edgestone and various hard landscaping elements. This was supported by both availability of necessary process equipment, which could be partly made in-house, and simplicity of technology of paving slab casting in the plastic molds. Western manufacturers, mainly from the East Europe, rather quickly bridged deficit of urban landscaping material due to the total lack of home competition and varied assortment of the offered high-quality plastic molds.

Undoubtedly, positive impact of appearance of imported paving slab plastic molds at the Ukrainian construction material market should be considered the fact that many Ukrainian construction material manufacturers started their production just with making the cast paving slab. Generally such companies were established in the hardly suitable premises (e.g., garage), but in many cases these then grew into the major construction material producers.

It should be yet once mentioned that unprecedented great demand for the cast paving slab in 90s was a result not of its performance, but primarily of virtually total lack of alternative proposals. Asphalt was in very short supply, walkway construction of concrete was extremely labor-intensive work, and whilst vibration-pressed paving slab was manufactured in great amount by major specialized enterprises, it had “miserable” appearance and poor choice, and was virtually not available for the private individuals.

However, as production, applications and operation experience is accumulated, some unfavorable features of the cast paving slab and its production method became evident. Paving slab made by method of concrete mixture casting in the plastic molds has attractive appearance and smooth surface. Workable concrete with high cement content used for the cast paving slab manufacturing readily takes various colors. Wide range of molds allows manufacturing of products with various surface textures. Unfortunately, none of the cast paving slab benefits could overweigh few minuses inherent to this material and its production method.

 

In spite of considerable consumption of high-grade cement, cast paving slab strength is frequently insufficient for high-density traffic applications. Cast paving slab made with strict adherence to recommended production process and proportions hardly met the requirements of operating DSTU’s (DSTU B V.2.7-145:2008 “Building materials. Plain concrete paving products. Specifications” and DSTU B V.2.7-238:2010 “Building materials. Footway concrete slabs. Specifications” hereinafter referred to as “DSTU”) in terms of concrete wearing capacity. Cast paving slab abrasion indices are rarely below 1.4g/cm2, while wearing capacity of paving slab used under the low-density traffic conditions shall not exceed 0.7g/cm2 as per the requirements of the DSTU.

Paving slab freeze-thaw resistance is the critical index directly determining paving elements durability. Along with the water absorption indices, freeze-thaw resistance determines pavement service life. In other words, freeze-thaw resistance indices (measured in cycles and designated with the Roman letter “F”) indicate how many years would paving slab appearance survive without the visible upper layer destruction.

DSTU’s specify that paving slab freeze-thaw resistance shall not be below F-100! However, this is for the south regions with temperature of the coldest five-day period ranging from 0 to -5°С. For the central region of Ukraine with temperature of the coldest five-day period ranging from -5 to -15°С and for the northern regions with temperature of the coldest five-day period ranging from -15 to -45°С paving slab freeze-thaw resistance shall not be below F-150 and F-200, respectively! However, paving slab made by vibratory casting method virtually fails to meet these requirements! Cast paving slab freeze-thaw resistance is considerably below the indices specified in operating DSTU’s. Cast paving slab water absorption capacity also fails to meet the requirements of DSTU’s and generally exceeds specified value of 5 - 6%.

Such gross nonconformance results in short useful life period of paving slab manufactured with the use of vibratory casting method. One can nearly commonly see that relatively recently laid paving slab begins to spall and crack in as little as a few years. Thus in high-density traffic applications this takes place in as little as two years. As a result, material designed for very long life requires repair and often the complete replacement after the very short space of time! Recall that paving elements replacement is much more difficult and labor-intensive procedure than laying!

However, above problems are generally typical for the cast paving slab. Paving slab made by vibration pressing method works much longer. In many major cities in Ukraine, one can see places where vibration-pressed paving slab manufactured as far back as 70s in ХХ century has excellent appearance and is in good preservation even under the forced service conditions. Although urban grounds with the laid slabs are often far from perfect, this is probably due to the lack of reliable sand bed and worn out drainage systems, rather than paving slab itself.

The point is that the quite excusable desire of urban municipalities and utility service providers, as well as legal and physical entities, to save money on the urban land improvement by means of procurement of cheapest paving slab, and to hire “amateurs”, to say the least, for paving is completely on a par with the old saying: “Don't be penny wise and pound foolish.” However, it is necessary to read this article to learn how quality paving slab is manufactured, how to define quality when choosing paving slab, and what paving slab laying method would be appropriate.

 So, experience in use of paving slab manufactured by vibratory casting method revealed the serious shortcomings inherent to this material and its production method.

 

Therefore, paving slab manufacturers and users with increasing frequency put the reasonable question: well, and what paving slab is better, vibratory-cast or vibration-pressed one? Whether is it possibly to get a quality product with the use of that technology, or the cast paving slab manufacturing method itself does not allow production of material conforming to the requirements of existing DSTU’s? Whether is the optimum balance between the good material performance and its availability?

In order to answer these questions, let us try to understand key factors influencing the produced paving slab quality.

 

Production: vibration pressing or vibratory casting?        

Let us consider and compare paving slab production by the both vibratory casting method and volumetric vibration pressing (vibration molding) method.

Vibratory casting method result is beautiful, cheap, but does not last long enough.

Paving slab production by vibratory casting in the plastic molds is rather simple, though it has some specific features.

A concrete mixture is poured into the plastic mold. Mold is placed onto jarring table (table with the continuously vibrating surface) and dwells on it for some time. Once concrete mixture in mold is compacted, mold is removed from table and stays at the specified temperature for 12 to 48 hours, whereupon finished product is removed from it.

Finished products have very attractive appearance, and could be delivered to the customer after the short curing period required for achievement of transport strength.

However, as stated above, product strength, water absorption capacity and freeze-thaw resistance do not comply with the requirements of operating DSTU’s. Great amount of manual work without any chance of possible automation does not allow cutting of cast paving slab production costs, and does not allow attainment of high volume production capability. Large amount of the special admixtures intended for acceleration of concrete curing and plasticizing agents enhancing the concrete workability considerably increase production cost.

Now let us consider specific features of paving slab production by volumetric vibration pressing (vibration molding) method.

Volume vibration pressing (vibration molding) method is based on concrete products manufacturing by the vibratory compaction of earth-moist concrete mixture with obligatory loading of forming punch.

 Products are formed in stationary vibrating compactors.

Vibration pressing (vibration molding) features the use of earth-moist concrete mixtures with the reduced water-to-cement ratio. Water-to-cement ratio reduction allows manufacture of high-strength products at the reduced content of M-400 grade cement.

 Semidry vibration pressing method allows manufacture of products with high freeze-thaw resistance characteristics (F-200, F-300 and higher) and low water absorption capacity (less than 5%). Products manufactured in vibrating compactors show geometry fidelity and stabile basic performance parameters.

Forming section of vibrating compactor consists of die and punch.

 Punch surface has a pattern, which is imprinted on the face of paving slab. Die is intended for manufactured slab walls forming. Products are molded on removable process bottom plates then delivered to the drying station.

 Vibration pressing method is suitable for manufacture of paving slab, edgestone and drainage, as well as masonry and partition blocks (for block details see article “Slag stone: History and Modern Age”).

Process of paving slab production could be nominally divided into three stages:

 

1. Preparation of concrete mixture

 Concrete is prepared with the use of compulsory-type concrete mixer (ideal concrete mixer is commonly considered twin-shaft paddle mixer providing the much more efficient mixing process). Single mixer is enough for the single-layer products, while double-layer products manufacture require two mixers, respectively. After the concrete mixture preparation, molding mixture, of which basic constituents are stone screening dust and cement, is fed directly into the vibrating compactor die, where the molding process takes place.

 

2. Molding

 Die presses process bottom plate to compactor vibrating plate, punch goes down into die after the molding mixture loading, and vibrating plate and punch carriage vibrators are actuated. Material is compacted under the action of vibration pulses. Vibration pressing duration usually does not exceed 3-5 seconds. Then die and punch are moved to up position by means of drive levers, and process bottom plate with the molded products stays on vibrating plate. Bottom plate with the paving slab is delivered to the drying station, and next bottom plate is moved into position.

 

3. Drying of products

 Process bottom plates with the molded products are delivered to the drying station for the steam curing. Water steam is normally used as heat-transfer medium. However, Portland cement based products curing in the production room environment should be allowable subject to the free areas availability. Thus, products heat-treatment costs are considerably reduced.

 Products are removed from process bottom plates upon achievement of concrete strength of at least 1.5-2.0 MPa (normally in as little as 5-8 hours), then free bottom plates are returned to the molding station and cycle restarts.

Should the formulation is strictly adhered, then vibration-pressed paving slab fully complies with and in some cases exceeds the requirements of DSTU’s in terms of strength, wearing capacity, water absorption capacity and freeze-thaw resistance.

Vibration pressed paving slab has considerably higher strength as compared with cast paving slab at lower cement consumption. Vibration pressing process allows reduction of plasticizing agent and modifying additives consumption and considerable decrease in amount of manual production work.

 Two-shift operation arrangement and shortened fabrication cycle (as compared to the cast paving slab production process) allow sharp productivity improvement at the overhead cost cutting.

 

Now then, we considered two principal paving slab production methods and discovered material weaknesses of vibratory casting method.

Now we will try to explain reasons thereof.

Principal reason of concrete products low strength and freeze-thaw resistance is increased water-to-cement ratio.

 It is known that strength and service life of concrete products directly depend not only on the used materials quality and concrete curing conditions, but also primarily on the reasonably chosen composition and concrete hardness (workability).

Concrete mixture hardness is the main parameter determining concrete strength and freeze-thaw resistance.

 DSTU’s directly state that the water-to-cement ratio for paving slab production shall not exceed 0.4! Paving slab with increased water-to-cement ratio never would comply with the requirements of DSTU’s since capillary pores in the bulk concrete would lower both product freeze-thaw resistance and strength. Therefore, the requirements of DSTU’s are fully appropriate, and paving slab should be manufactured with the water-to-cement ratio of at most 0.4!

Concrete with the low water-to-cement ratio is classified as a hard concrete. At the determination of concrete workability by the standard cone test, hard concrete virtually does not shrink after the removal of standard cone.

However, paving slab is manufactured by vibratory casting method with the use of workable and pourable concrete mixtures with the water-to-cement ratio of about 1.25-0.57. Harder concrete mixture just neither spread over the plastic mold nor imprint pattern and, finally, destroys the mold not designed for operation with the hard compositions. On the contrary, cast paving slab producers try to improve concrete workability and operate mainly with the pourable mixtures. The pourable mixture quickly fills plastic mold, it is readily laid as compared with hard mixture, so operation speed and productivity increase. However, such increase in water-to-cement ratio unexceptionally results in the concrete strength and freeze-thaw resistance loss.

Now reasons become clear of fast fracture of smooth and attractive, but weak and therefore short-lived cast paving slab!

Please note that though apparent, reasons of cast paving slab fast fracture are quite not hard to plumb. After all, DSTU’s are not secret and are available free, and detail the requirements to the paving slab and its ingredients.

However, this notwithstanding, the question “WHAT PAVING SLAB IS BETTER?” remains relevant to this day.

I believe this article gives a definitive answer to that question. Yes, the cast paving slab has excellent appearance; yes, it is easy-to-fabricate; yes, it allows alteration of walkways and paths, grounds and squares beyond recognition; however, let us face it: neither major index of paving slab manufactured by the vibratory casting method complies with the requirements of operating DSTU’s! Whereas paving slab manufactured by vibration pressing method has really a rough surface, its production requires higher investments, vibration-pressed paving slab range is actually not so broad, but vibration-pressed paving slab is quality material, which does not begin to break off under feet after the first service year and does not require complete replacement in as little as 3-4 years!

 

Physical characteristics and choice of quality paving slab

Physical characteristics of quality paving slab are as follows:

compression strength: 360-400 kg/cm2

water absorption capacity: max. 4.0% by volume

wearing capacity: 0.33 g/cm2

freeze-thaw resistance grade: F200 (for detail see the topic “Test Records”)

 

It is complicated problem since it is difficult to determine the paving slab quality without the special instrumentation and laboratory tests. In order to get you money's worth, you must know some features of paving slab appearance. There are two methods to add mirror finish to the paving slab surface: introduction of special additives to the concrete mixture composition or introduction of increased water volume. It is clear at once that the water addition would cost the producer far less money than introduction of expensive additives, but water substantially lowers paving slab strength. There is following method for determination of mirror surface source: tap lightly one slab against another and listen resulting sound. Ringing sound indicates that paving slab is manufactured with introduction of the special additives, dull sound indicates that more water was added.

Paving slab color must be saturated and bright. Glaring color of slab is indicative of increased coloring agent (pigment) content, which is also detrimental to paving slab strength.

 Paving slab could not have low price, if it was manufactured at the state-of-the-art equipment and with the use of quality proven materials.

Paving slab manufacture shall be in accordance with the DSTU’s requirements only, which shall be certified with the manufacturer’s stamp (Certificate of Conformity, test results). Choice of cheaper paving slab manufactured as per the technical specifications does not guarantee its quality and long-life performance.

It is necessary to calculate exactly the required paving slab amount prior to purchasing, because it would be difficult to purchase additionally as color indices (and sometimes size) of the same type paving slabs could differ from batch to batch.

 Any paving slab batch includes some percent defective — lot tolerance percent defective makes up to 5% as per the international standards.

Purchase the paving slab by 7-10% to excess of required square meters, because it is quite possibly that cutting would be needed, and part of metric area would run to waste.

Additional percent of paving slab area depends on the chosen laying method as well: number of concrete slabs necessary for circular or diagonal laying would be grater than that for parallel laying. It would be reasonable to reserve 1-1.5 m2 of paving slabs for replacement of slabs damaged during service.